Current Exhibition America Transformed: Mapping the 19th Century

May 4, 2019 through November 10, 2019


During the 19th century, the United States expanded dramatically westward. Immigrant settlers rapidly spread across the continent and transformed it, often through violent or deceptive means, from ancestral Native lands and borderlands teeming with diverse communities to landscapes that fueled the rise of industrialized cities. Historical maps, images and related objects tell the story of the sweeping changes made to the physical, cultural, and political landscape. Moving beyond the mythologized American frontier, this map exhibition explores the complexity of factors that shaped our country over the century.

America Transformed: Mapping the 19th Century, is presented in two chapters:

  • The United States Expands Westward, 1800-1862, May 2019-November 2019
  • From Homesteads to Modern Cities, 1862-1900, November 2019-May 2020

The maps in this exhibition were created predominantly by Euro-American cartographers, and published by government agencies or commercial profit-seeking companies. They promote Euro-American culture and perpetuate certain interpretations of history. Considering the inherent power dynamics helps us understand that this was at the expense of other points of view – especially of indigenous peoples, those that were enslaved, and immigrant laborers, among many others. It is important to bear in mind how these documents reveal or conceal the ways people and communities were dispossessed, exploited, and annihilated. Unseen here but equally vital are stories of heroic resilience, resistance, and cultural preservation.

The Leventhal Map & Education Center stands on land that was once a water-based ecosystem that provided for the Massachusett people who lived in the Greater Boston area. We acknowledge these indigenous people, the devastating effects of settler colonialism on their communities, and their contemporary presence.

– The Leventhal Map & Education Center

VIEWPOINT: The perspective of Native populations in the 19th century cannot be properly told in maps, because Native concepts about land are not two-dimensional, and qualifying ownership with a paper document was an imported European concept. During the rapid expansion of the United States, the idea of Native homeland, a multi-layered place giving life, sustenance, language, spiritual communion, and kinship, would change to a theory that land is preordained to be “improved” or “developed” for the purpose of commodification. This was a near universal change from Native land management systems that had sustained populations for millennia.

– -Akomawt Educational Initiative


The maps in this introduction provide a chronological overview of how the boundaries of the United States changed during the 19th century. Originally comprised of 13 eastern states, the United States expanded to include 48 states and territories spanning the breadth of the continent. The familiar, tidy story of progress and inevitability of westward expansion is promoted in many historical American maps, including the growing demarcation of national, state, and county boundaries that etched U.S. colonial power and ideology into the landscape. Some of the maps presented here speak to encounters with Native people and offer insight into the complex and varied ways that Native and Euro-American people interacted, coexisted, and fought. Maps created by or copied from Native authors conceptualize mobility and relationships between people and places rather than precise measurements and boundaries. A bitter and uncomfortable undercurrent is the reality of the oppression and dispossession of millions of Native people.

Alvin Jewett Johnson (1827-1884)
“American Atlas,” from "Johnson’s New Illustrated (Steel Plate) Family Atlas"
New York, 1866. Printed frontispiece, 18.5 x 14 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center. Reproduction 2019.

Published in 1866, this family atlas frontispiece promoted a popular, mythic vision of the American West. Four Native people point to features of white advancement: a homestead stands in an area cleared of trees, a steamship huffs toward a railroad bridge, and smoke rises from a distant factory. Bucolic depictions like these implied indigenous people docilely accepted their displacement. They also portrayed Native people as dwelling in an untouched, natural environment, despite the reality that they, too, impacted the land. The image promoted the idea that white settlers tamed the wilderness and advanced their civilization where it was “missing.”

Aaron Arrowsmith (1750-1823)
"A Map of the United States of North America"
London, 1802. Printed map, 48 x 55.5 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center. Reproduction 2019.

This large wall map details the United States at the onset of the 19th century. The young nation’s western boundary is the Mississippi River, based on the 1783 Paris Peace Treaty. In addition to the original 13 states, three new ones appear: Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee. As Euro-American settlers moved across the Appalachian Mountains, they encountered Native and French communities, including the Tsalagi (Cherokee), Chikasha (Chickasaw), Chahta (Choctaw), and Mvskoke (Creek) who inhabited expansive ancestral lands in the southern portion of this trans-Appalachian region. An image of Niagara Falls, which became part of the nation’s popular iconography, adorns the cartouche.

Nicholas King (1771-1812), after Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
"Map of Part of the Continent of North America . . . from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean . . ."
Washington, D.C., 1806? Manuscript map, 26.5 x 38 inches. Courtesy of the Boston Athenaeum. Reproduction 2019.

Following the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803, President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the Corps of Discovery to explore and map the new territory, develop trade and diplomatic relations with tribal nations, and establish a claim to the Pacific Northwest. Commanded by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, the Corps kept a daily record of geographic observations and prepared numerous manuscript maps incorporating information provided by Native people. Particularly noteworthy are the names of tribal communities, annotated in red ink. This was the federal government’s first attempt to accurately map the presence of Native peoples (and number of warriors) west of the Mississippi River. These lands were claimed by the United States but firmly controlled by Native peoples.

James Hamilton Young
"Map of the United States"
Philadelphia, 1831. Printed map, 42.5 x 33.5 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center. Reproduction 2019.

By 1831, the land east of the Mississippi had been divided into 24 states and the Michigan territory. In addition, American settlement and Native dispossession started to expand west of the Mississippi with the addition of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri. The mapmakers also labeled the lands occupied by the Tsalagi (Cherokee), Mvskoke (Creek), Chikasha (Chickasaw), and Chahta (Choctaw) in large capital letters, although just a year earlier, the federal government had enacted the Indian Removal Act, which forced many tribes from their ancestral homelands. The law paved the way for the Trail of Tears, the name given to a series of forced relocations of these Native nations.

Peter Fidler (1769-1822) after Ac ko mok ki
"An Indian Map of the Different Tribes, that Inhabit the East and West Side of the Rocky Mountains . . ."
1801. Manuscript map, 15 x 19 inches. Courtesy of Hudson's Bay Company Archives, Provincial Archives of Manitoba, G.1/25. Reproduction 2019.

Peter Fidler, cartographer and fur trader, recorded this map in 1801 based on one provided by Ac ko mok ki, a Blackfoot chief. West is at the top, and a double line represents the Rocky Mountains. Below, the headwaters of the Missouri and Saskatchewan River systems flow eastward down the map. Over 30 tribal nations in the upper Great Plains region are noted. When the map was forwarded to London, the physical geography was integrated into a printed map but the data pertaining to the tribal nations was omitted to suggest that this region was uninhabited.

"Non-Chi-Ning-Ga’s Map of the Migration of his Indian Ancestors"
1837. Manuscript map, 41 x 27.5 inches. Courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 75, map 821. Reproduction 2019.

An Ioway chief named Non-Chi-Ning-Ga (“No Heart of Fear”) prepared this schematic diagram of the Upper Mississippi and Missouri River drainages for an 1837 treaty council in Washington, DC. In an effort to prove the lands were theirs, rather than Sac and Fox, the map records Ioway place names and ancestral village sites. The tribe’s migration routes for two centuries are marked in dotted lines, from Green Bay on Lake Michigan (on the right) through Wisconsin to the Mississippi River (central diagonal line) to the Missouri (vertical line on left). Although the Sac and Fox did not dispute the history expressed in this map, the U.S. government forced the Ioway to relocate to reservations.

Joseph Hutchins Colton (1800-1893)
"Colton's Map of the United States of America … from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean"
New York, 1854. Printed map, 47 x 55 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center. Reproduction 2019.

During the 1840s and early 1850s, the political geography of the West changed dramatically. The nation annexed Texas, established the 49th parallel as its northwestern boundary, claimed the Oregon Territory, and won land from Mexico following the Mexican-American War. By the time this map was published in 1854, the United States included 31 states and seven territories. Commercially published maps like this one celebrated the nation’s expansion with small vignettes dispersed throughout these newly acquired territories depicting Native people, wildlife, and a wagon train. It also suggests a unified nation, but a statistical table enumerating free and enslaved population alludes to conflicts over whether to extend slavery into the western territories and foreshadows the impending Civil War.

William C. Bloss (1795-1863)
"Map of the United States and Territories Showing the Possessions and Aggressions of the Slave Power"
New York and Rochester, NY, 1856? Printed broadside, 41.5 x 27.5 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center. Reproduction 2019.

While Colton’s map suggests a unified nation extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, this broadside published about the same time boldly addresses the slavery issue. It identifies free states in white, slave states in black, and contested territories in gray. Issued during the 1856 presidential election, this stark graphic implicitly supports the candidacy of Republican John C. Frémont, who opposed slavery’s expansion. It also forcefully challenges the so-called Three-Fifths Compromise which counted three out of five slaves toward calculating southern political representation, while denying those enslaved peoples any voting privileges or freedom.

U.S. General Land Office
"Map of the United States and Territories, Showing the Extent of Public Surveys. . ."
Washington, DC, 1871. Printed map, 27.5 x 55 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center. Reproduction 2019.

Published shortly after the American Civil War, this map depicts a reunited nation, but it also provides an inventory of land and mineral resources. While the General Land Office, the federal agency responsible for surveying and selling public lands, produced this map as a yearly update of its activities, it also promoted further expansion of western settlement. The square grid pattern appearing in most states west of the Appalachian Mountains indicates the extent of public land or township surveys. Color coding identifies the location of mineral resources. Reflecting the efforts to unify the nation after the Civil War, this map marks the route of the first transcontinental railroad.

Robert H. Fletcher
"Map of the Nez Perce Indian Campaign, Brig. Gen. O. O. Howard, Commanding"
Washington, DC, 1877. Printed map, 24 x 47.25 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center. Reproduction 2019.

This military map records the Nez Perce War in 1877, one of the final campaigns of the U.S. Army against the tribal nations of the Pacific Northwest. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard, a Union Civil War leader, Commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau, and a founder of Howard University, led U.S. troops. They pursued several bands of Nimiipuu (Nez Perce) who refused to surrender their ancestral lands and move to a smaller reservation in Idaho. Threatened with forced removal, they embarked on a northward trek to find sanctuary in Canada. After a fighting retreat of 1,170 miles and 18 skirmishes and battles, they surrendered just south of the Canadian border.

National Publishing Company
"The United States of America: Including All Its Newly Acquired Territory"
Boston, 1902. Printed map, 38 x 55 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center. Reproduction 2019.

While this information-packed map summarizes the nation’s political geography and population growth after a century of territorial expansion and native removals, it also documents a new arena for empire building beyond the continent. Brightly colored boundaries outline 48 states and organized territories, as well as counties within each. Settlement in the eastern half of the country was denser than the West, which was characterized by much larger states and counties. Graphs and tables demonstrate the growth of population from 3.9 million in 1790 to over 76 million in 1900. Marginal insets depict Alaska and Hawaii (taken by a coordinated overthrow of the Hawaiian Queen just a few year prior), as well as “newly acquired territories” in the Caribbean and across the Pacific.

Commissioner of Indian Affairs
"Map Showing Indian Reservations within the Limits of the United States"
Washington, DC, 1892. Printed map, 38 x 55 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell. Reproduction 2019.

By the 1890s, many Native tribes were displaced and forced to live on reservations, comprising a fraction of their homeland, on territory designated as the most undesirable for settlers or in totally different environments than originally inhabited. This map depicts the locations, sizes, and boundaries of reservations, which were usually established by treaties ratified by the U.S. Senate. In many cases Congress did not ratify treaties signed in good faith by Native peoples, and the agreed upon reservation boundaries were renegotiated to the benefit of the government and the states. In 1887, the Dawes Act (General Allotment Act) further reduced the size of reservations by permitting the federal government to assign land to individual Native families, rather than tribes. The law fragmented reservations and opened more land to non-Native settlers.

James Wilson (1763-1855)
"A New American Terrestrial Globe"
Bradford, VT, 1811. Globe, 17 x 17 x 19 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Americans had access to globes, but they had to import them from Europe. James Wilson, who became the first to produce globes in the United States, made this globe in 1811. Rather than identifying the specific region that was part of the United States, he labeled the entire continent “America.” Wilson marked the boundaries of the eastern states and Louisiana Purchase and noted the names of several tribal nations. Since white cartographers had extensively mapped the East, the globe features more detail in that region than in the West.

James T.B. Ives (1839-1915)
"Historical Map Showing the Successive Acquisitions of Territory by the United States of America"
New York, 1896. Mechanical map, 24.5 x 34 inches. Courtesy of Barry MacLean Collection.

The boundaries of the United States transformed during the 19th century. Mapmaker James Ives created this mechanical map to help people, especially students, visualize these changes. The top map labels the tribes that occupied different regions, while the lower layers represent the territorial growth of the United States. The mechanized pieces of this cartographic puzzle include the colonies in 1776, the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, and the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. The map told a story of the seemingly inevitable process of expansion and emphasized nation-building by treaties rather than the violence of war.

Part 1: The United States Expands Westward, 1800-1862

This exhibition begins at the end of the 18th century, when Euro-American settlers were exploring, surveying and rapidly taking over lands west of the Appalachians that were inhabited by Native peoples, as well as the French and Spanish. The newcomers developed canals, roads, and railroads, in many places appropriating Native trails, and created an integrated transportation network. Exploiting land and mineral resources, they initiated a capitalist economy based on agriculture, mining, and industry. This part of the story concludes with three significant events in the early 1860s that had major impact on the transformation of the nation’s physical and cultural landscape: the Civil War, the passing of the Homestead Act, and the authorization of the first transcontinental railroad.

VIEWPOINT: Maps were both the mechanisms for, and witnesses to, the betrayals of justice that made the violence of dispossession and extermination possible. We can stand in witness, too, if we have the courage to look closely and listen.

– Dr. Margaret W. Pearce (Enrolled member, Citizen Potawatomi Nation), Faculty Associate, Canadian-American Center, University of Maine

1. LAND: Exploring, Surveying, and Conserving the Land

To most people of European descent, the land west of the Mississippi River was unknown, although Native peoples were deeply knowledgeable about the land on which they hunted, traded, farmed, and developed communities. In the 1780s, government officials initiated the settler-colonial process of westward expansion. The maps and artifacts in this exhibition illustrate how Congress set the principles for surveying and selling public lands that had been gained through purchase, treaty, trickery, warfare, and forced removal.

Surveyors standardized the practice of dividing land into six-mile square townships providing the foundation for settlement patterns in western states. Government surveys noted the land claims of earlier French and Spanish inhabitants but failed to recognize lands claimed by Native tribes.

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark set out to inventory and map the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase in the early 1800s. Their trip paved the way for similar government-sponsored expeditions and culminated in the 1850s with the Pacific Railroad Surveys, which mapped potential routes for the first transcontinental railroad. Each of these efforts brought back cartographic and scientific data about the inhabitants, landscape, natural resources, and wildlife. By the final third of the century, many Americans became concerned about conserving these natural resources and landscapes that were rapidly disappearing through economic exploitation.

Frank Bond (1856–1940) and I. P. Berthrong
“United States Showing Routes of Principal Explorers and Early Roads and Highways”
Washington, DC, 1908. Printed map, 23.5 x 32 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center. Reproduction, 2019.

Frank Bond, a General Land Office surveyor, draftsman, and finally Chief Clerk, created this thematic, historical map that was atypical of other GLO publications. He compiled the major Spanish, Dutch, French, British, and American routes during four centuries of Euro-American exploration. This colorful presentation was overlaid on a standard base map that showed the extent of township surveys by the beginning of the 20th century. The map demonstrated the current state of geographical knowledge and suggested that by this time there was little unmapped land.

William Faden (1749–1836)
“Map of North America from 20 to 80 Degrees North Latitude: Exhibiting the Recent Discoveries …”
London, 1820. Printed map, 59 x 66 inches.
Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell. Reproduction, 2019.

This large wall map integrated topographic and hydrographic detail gained from various European and American explorations of interior North America. It included data from expeditions led by Alexander von Humboldt (northern Mexico), Alexander MacKenzie (Canadian Great Plains), and George Vancouver (Pacific northwest coast), as well as Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and Zebulon Pike, all of whom were commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Territory. This accumulated knowledge demonstrated that the western part of the continent was not dominated by a single mountain range as was previously hypothesized, but by a complex series of ranges that came to be known as the Rocky Mountains.

Edwin James (1797–1861)
“Map of the Country Drained by the Mississippi,” in “Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains … under the Command of Major Stephen H. Long ...”
London, [1823]. Printed map, 16 x 21 inches. Courtesy of Barry MacLean Collection.

Maj. Stephen H. Long’s scientific expedition (1819–1820) continued the tradition of U.S. Army-sponsored exploration. The expedition culminated in a published narrative with a map that delineated Long’s route from St. Louis up the Missouri and Platte Rivers to the Rocky Mountains. Information for the eastern half of the map was borrowed from commercial sources, while the western half corrected geographical errors made by previous expeditions. However, Long incorrectly characterized the High Plains as the “Great American Desert” (see southwestern quarter of map). This misconception may have deterred Euro-American settlement of the Great Plains during the early and mid-19th century.

Edwin James (1797–1861)
“Indian Record of a Battle between the Pawnees and the Konzas. A Facsimile of a Delineation upon a Bison Robe,” in “Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains …”
London, [1823]. Print, 6 x 7.5 inches. Courtesy of David Rumsey Collection. Reproduction, 2019.

Rather than relying on Native knowledge, Long’s party included scientists and artists for the first time. Although artist Samuel Seymour drafted more than 150 sketches, the report published only eight, which documented landscapes and encounters with Native people. The final and most unique plate reproduced a buffalo robe showing a battle between Pawnee and Kansa (Kansas) warriors. The design provides a contrast with Euro-American methods of recording events in time and space, depicting the spatial interrelationships of individuals drawn in profile to record the conflict.

John C. Frémont (1813–1890)
“Map of an Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains … and to Oregon & North California …”
Washington, DC, 1845. Printed map, 59 x 66 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

During the 1840s, Americans became interested in the Far West as they settled the Oregon Territory and entered the Mexican-American War. One American explorer who made major contributions during this period was John C. Frémont, who led five scientific expeditions. Charles Preuss, a German immigrant and the expedition’s cartographer, prepared this map depicting only the geographic information collected. Frémont’s official reports, written with the assistance of his wife Jessie (daughter of expansionist-minded Missouri senator Thomas Hart Benton), gave “manifest destiny” a popular text. Advocates of “manifest destiny” believed it was the nation’s mission and preordained right to spread American institutions and culture, thus justifying a policy of territorial expansion.

John Disturnell (1801–1877)
“Mapa de los Estados Unidos de Méjico”
New York, 1846. Printed map, 30 x 37 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

Published a year after the annexation of Texas, at the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, this map depicts the northern region of Mexico (today part of the United States). It reveals a cultural landscape with both Spanish and Native settlements. Besides the Spanish settlements in southeastern Texas, there were three other clusters in this northern region – the upper Rio Grande (New Mexico), southern Arizona, and the California coast. While some Spanish settlements had been established more than a century earlier, Spanish culture was imposed on numerous Native groups already living in the area including the Pueblo, Numunu (Comanche), N’Dee (Apache), Hopitushínumu (Hopi), and Diné (Navajo).

VIEWPOINT: This map offers a great example of the fluidity of geography, as we can see how its meaning had shifted and would shift again. Lost in the designs of nation-states are the numerous indigenous geographies (still visible in maps like this) that remain in place and persist to this day.

– Natchee Blu Barnd, Oregon State University

William Rector (1778–1827) and Elias Rector (d. 1822)
“Plat of the Common Field and Town Tract of Kaskaskia”
Washington, DC, 1807. Printed map and report, 20 x 17. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell. Reproduction, 2019.

U.S. officials agreed to adjudicate land grants, known as private land claims, that had been made by French, British, Spanish and Mexican governments to their settlers. The first of these transactions were for early French settlements, such as the village of Kaskaskia shown here, later named the capital of the Territory of Illinois. On this map, the Common Field is divided into long narrow lots, a common characteristic of French settlements. These irregular surveys were incorporated into the rectangular grid pattern.

Horace Minot Pool (1803–1878)
“Surveyor’s Compass, Chain and Chain Pins, and Field Notes”
Easton, MA, 1841-1878. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

Surveyors determined angles or direction in simple cadastral or property surveys using a compass, like this one made in Easton, Massachusetts. They measured distance with an iron-link chain of 100 links or 66 feet, using a unit called a pole or rod which equaled 16.5 feet. An example of surveyor’s field notes documenting the “metes and bounds” of a survey opens with “Begin at a W. Birch and stones, then S 20 E 32 R. White oak and stones.”

Diamond Publishing Co.
“Land Measures Illustrated”

Minneapolis, 1901. Broadside, 41 x 27.5 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

This educational poster illustrates the structure of General Land Office township surveys. The top scene depicts surveyors laying out a single section, measuring one mile by one mile and containing 640 acres. The diagram labeled “Township Plat” demonstrates the division of a township into 36 sections, while the “Township Survey” diagram explains that townships are identified in relation to a base line and meridian (representing an X-Y axis). Each parcel of land has a unique numerical identifier such as the 40-acre tract where the surveyors stand could be identified as the SE 1/4 of the SE 1/4 of Section 1, Township 3 North, Range 4 West, 6th Principal Meridian.

VIEWPOINT: These divisions remind us of the harmful game of wrongful land dispossession. For Native people, these squares represent a systematic disruption of our ancestral ways of life. This diagram reflects the colonial concept of land ownership: packaged up in little squares, as though one can compartmentalize a way of life and sell it.

– Rebecca Sockbeson, Ph.D., Penobscot Indian Nation, University of Alberta

William Dall (fl. 1800)
“Map of W. Dall's Lots in Athens County, Washington County, and Gallia County, Ohio”
1800. Manuscript map, 8 x 10 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

This small manuscript map served as a personal record of one individual’s land holdings. It highlights the grid pattern that was characteristic of public land surveys initiated by the Land Ordinance of 1785. These townships were part of the Ohio Company’s purchases in southeastern Ohio. This private land company, composed of Boston investors, established Marietta as the first Euro-American settlement in the Northwest Territory. The map noted that William Dall owned five parcels of land in four townships, totaling over 900 acres.

William Woodruff (fl. 1817–1833), after Alexander Bourne (1786–1849) and Benjamin Hough
“A Map of the State of Ohio from Actual Survey”
Cincinnati, 1831. Printed map, 51 x 48 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell.

Ohio, the 17th state, was the first carved out of the Northwest Territory. Survey grid patterns based on 5- and 6-mile square townships were first implemented here, in addition to traditional irregular metes and bounds surveys in the Virginia Military District. To administer surveying and sales, over a dozen private land companies, military land districts, and congressionally-authorized districts were created. By 1832 when this large wall map was updated, surveying had been completed. County boundaries and township perimeters are marked. The cartouche promotes agriculture and river transportation with a scene of a farm overlooking the Ohio River.

John Melish (1771–1822) and Burr Bradley
“Map of Indiana”
Philadelphia, 1817. Printed map, 18 x 13.5 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

Indiana Territory (“Land of Indians”) was similarly carved out of the Northwest Territory in 1800. Published in 1817, a year after Indiana’s statehood, this map indicates that officials had divided the southern third of the state into counties and townships. Numerous tribal nations, including the Myaamiaki (Miami), Kiikaapoi (Kickapoo), Lenape (Delaware), Shawnee, and Neshnabé (Potawatomi) inhabited the region. The map identifies land cessions before 1817 with dashed lines. From the 1820s through the 1840s these tribal communities were forcibly relocated, most often to reservations in the Great Plains or to Canada.

Charles C. Royce (1845–1923)
“Montana 1,” from “Indian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784-1984”
Washington, DC, 1899. Printed map, 11.5 x 14.5 inches. Courtesy of Ronald Grim.

By the 1890s, the U.S. government seized over 1.5 billion acres of Native land by way of treaty, coercion, military force, and executive order. Tables in this compendium itemize over 700 land cessions and treaties enacted between 1784 and 1894, while 67 maps delineate the boundaries of each transaction. For example, the yellow and pink districts in western Montana (numbered 373 and 374) refer to the 1855 Treaty of Hellgate, negotiated with the Séliš (Flathead), Kootenai (Kootenay), and Q'Lispé (Upper Pend d’Orielles). Through a contentious negotiation process mired in mistranslation and differing expectations, the tribes ceded their lands and became dissatisfied with enforcement of the treaties. Hostilities broke out in 1858.

VIEWPOINT: “Cede” is a very gentle term to describe a deeply violent, forced, and uneasy process. As Native groups suffered losses from epidemics and the destruction of their food sources, they relinquished their lands to the U.S. government, often as a final resort. Native groups were forced to relocate from their homelands, either by treaty or executive orders promising them abundant resources in exchange for territory – none of which were fully realized.

– Chris Newell (Passamaquoddy); endawnis Spears (Navajo, Ojibwe, Chickasaw, Choctaw); Dr. Jason Mancini Ph.D. Akomawt Educational Initiative

Gustavus Sohon (1825–1903)
“Flathead Treaty Council, July 1855”
1855. Manuscript pencil drawing, 8 x 10 inches. Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives. Reproduction, 2019.

Gustavus Sohon (1825–1903)
“Battle of Col. Steptoe on the In-gos-so-man Creek, W.T., Fought 17th May 1858”
1858. Manuscript pencil drawing, 6.75 x 10 inches. Courtesy of Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LOT 2528 (F) [P&P]. Reproduction, 2019.

Isaac Stevens, leader of the Northern Pacific Railroad Survey and Washington’s territorial governor, negotiated several treaties during the 1850s to help justify the construction of a northern railroad route and to entice Americans to move to the Pacific Northwest. Two pencil sketches, prepared by Gustavus Sohon, a German immigrant who served as an artist and interpreter with Stevens, depict scenes from this period. In 1855, he produced this pencil drawing documenting Stevens’ negotiation with the Flathead Treaty Council. In 1858, he accompanied the campaign against the Spokane, Schitsu'umsh (Coeur d'Alene), and Palouse. His second drawing records the defeat of U.S. Army troops by a combined force of several Native groups.

John Calhoun (1806–1859)
“Township no. 11 South, Range no. XVI East of 6th Princl. Meridian”
1857. Manuscript survey plat, 17 x 22 inches. Courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 49, Kansas Headquarter Plats. Reproduction, 2019.

The General Land Office produced manuscript survey plats for each individual township. Their primary purpose was to outline the boundaries of the six-mile square township and each of the 36 sections. Surveyors often noted natural and man-made features that crossed or were near the surveyed lines. In this Kansas example, the Kansas River and tributary streams dominated the landscape. Green lines marked the boundary between woodland and prairie, while existing roads, farmsteads, and town sites were also mapped. One unusual feature is seven 640-acre tracts, identified as Kansas half-breed lands, which were allotted to individuals of mixed Kaw (Kanza) and European ancestry.

VIEWPOINT: Full breed lands did not exist because full breeds were not considered human enough to be land owners. Half breeds, or mixed race Natives were considered to be partially human and able to own land, while Natives with no European ancestry were less than human, not worthy of land possession.

– Rebecca Sockbeson, Ph.D. Penobscot Indian Nation, University of Alberta

Ward Burnett (1811–1884)
“Township no. 25 South, Range no. III West of the 6th Principal Meridian”
1861, with later annotations. Manuscript survey plat,16.5 x 19 inches. Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 49, Kansas Local Office Plats. Reproduction, 2019.

The Homestead and Pacific Railroad Acts, both passed in 1862, dramatically changed the process for granting public lands. The former allotted 160 acres to white settlers, as well as freed men and women, who would improve land within five years of selection. The latter authorized construction of the first transcontinental railroad and established the principle of giving alternating sections (640 acres) to railroad companies. For example, this township was surveyed in the late 1850s, but most of the land was not selected until the 1870s. Alternating sections marked with “RR” were granted to a railroad company, while those sections patented through the homesteading process are indicated by an X.

José Rafael Gonzales (fl. 1852)
“Diseño for Rancho San Miguelito”
1852. Manuscript drawing, 12 x 17 inches. Courtesy of
National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 49, California Private Land Claims, Diseños. Reproduction, 2019.

The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican-American War and ceded much of this southwestern territory to the United States. The federal government agreed to honor Spanish and Mexican land grants. Claimants in California had to submit a documentary case file (expediente) with a description and map (diseño) of the tract. Displayed here is a diseño for more than 22,000 acres granted by the Mexican governor in 1841 and finally approved by the U.S. government in 1867.

George H. Thompson (fl. 1870)
“Plat of the Rancho San Antonio or Rodeo de las Aguas, Finally Confirmed to Maria Rita Valdez”
1870. Manuscript survey plat, 19 x 25.5 inches. Courtesy of
National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 49, California Private Land Claims, Survey Plats. Reproduction, 2019.

In California, Spanish settlements extended along the California coast from San Diego to San Francisco. Over 800 private land claims required adjudication, reflecting a variety of settlements identified as presidios (forts), pueblos (towns), missions, and ranchos. The latter were large land holdings that ranged from 4,000 to 40,000 acres and rarely had precise boundaries. Displayed here is the final survey for Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas, originally granted in 1838 to Maria Rita Valdez, a granddaughter of one of the original settlers of Los Angeles. The grant was finally surveyed and approved by the General Land Office in 1871, although she sold the property in 1854.

2. ECONOMY: Transforming the Landscape through Agriculture, Mining, and Industry

While many Euro-Americans believed they were settlers in an untouched wilderness, Native people had altered the landscape by managing forests, growing crops, hunting, igniting seasonal burnings, and building communities for millennia. As U.S. government officials explored, mapped and inventoried the lands west of the Appalachians, they advertised the fertility of the soil and the presence of mineral resources. American settlers cleared the forests to create farms and scarred the earth to mine for resources, which eventually drove the construction of industrial towns and cities.

Timber and coal fueled new factories in urban centers that processed agricultural and mineral products into marketable items. Under colonial and U.S. rule of law, this change was known legally as “improving” the land. Wealth generated from resource extraction and the labor of enslaved and free workers enriched the prospects of a small but very rich upper class, though new industrial jobs and small subsistence farms did lift some free laborers and farmers out of poverty.

VIEWPOINT: When looking at these maps, it's important to keep in mind that the idea of 'improving' land is an English colonial concept. Native people worked the land prior to American settlement. Disease-ravaged native populations and vast farmlands quickly returned to forest. The existing forests were managed systematically by Native peoples in different ways and for different reasons. The law said "improve", but what it meant literally was doing something to make a profit. This was usually done through farming, cutting down trees, planting crops, raising cows, chickens and pigs, and never moving. The concept that this behavior is an "improvement" is purely a European perspective.

– Chris Newell (Passamaquoddy); endawnis Spears (Navajo, Ojibwe, Chickasaw, Choctaw); Dr. Jason Mancini Ph.D.; Akomawt Educational Initiative

Frederick Law Olmsted (1822–1903)
“A Map of the Cotton Kingdom and its Dependencies in America,” in “The Cotton Kingdom”
New York, 1861. Printed map, 11 x 17 inches. Courtesy of Boston Public Library, Rare Books Department. Reproduction, 2019.

This statistical map addresses the importance of cotton agriculture in the economy before the American Civil War. It represents agricultural productivity rather than distribution and density of cotton cultivation by mapping two variables: productivity of cotton per enslaved laborer (blue, yellow, or red) and ratio of enslaved people to freemen (solid versus dashed horizontal lines). The map accompanied landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted’s published account of his travels through the South during the 1850s. Hired by the “New York Times” as a journalist to report his observations about the region’s economy, he argued that chattel slavery was inefficient for cotton production.

Robert Pearsall Smith (1827–1898)
“Map of Pickaway County, Ohio, from Surveys and County Records”
Philadelphia, 1858. Printed map, 38 x 53 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

Pickaway County, located in central Ohio about 25 miles south of Columbus, provides a good example of a rural Midwestern county where the economy was based on diversified agriculture during the first half of 19th century. The statistical tables along the bottom margin of this land ownership map indicate that the county had a population of 21,000 and farms were valued at $6 million. Agricultural production included a variety of livestock (horses, cows, oxen, sheep, and swine) and crops (corn, wheat, rye, oats, hay, and potatoes). The map also displays the boundaries of individual landholdings, indicating that most were small farms containing several hundred acres.

James D. Scott (fl. 1854–1889)
“Map of Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania”
Philadelphia, 1864. Printed map, 45 x 50 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

The economy of Schuylkill County, located in northeastern Pennsylvania, focused on anthracite coal mining during the 19th century. This county map documents how that activity dominated the landscape. Of the 37 marginal vignettes, 20 illustrate collieries – coal mines and connected buildings. An additional ten depict local iron manufacturers, fueled by the region’s coal. Also evident is the network of railroads and canals that shipped these resources to New York City and Philadelphia. The map identifies landowners’ names including many coal companies, and also displays street plans and directories for 23 towns, detailing retail activities and service industries within each.

“Exterior View of D.G. Yuengling & Son Brewery”
Ca. 1855. Photographic print, 8 x 11 inches. Courtesy of D.G. Yuengling & Son, Inc. Reproduction, 2019.

The street map for Pottsville, the county seat and largest town, accompanies a directory with 110 listings. Yuengling brewery, which is the oldest brewery in the United States still in operation today, appears in the list and is located on the town map. This photograph, taken around 1855, is the earliest known image of the brewery. David G. Jüngling, who immigrated from Germany, founded the brewery in 1829. He changed the spelling of his name to Yuengling so that Americans could pronounce it. He anticipated that locals—especially the many German immigrants who lived in the region—would purchase his product.

William A. Jackson (fl. 1850)
“Map of the Mining District of California”
New York, 1850. Printed map, 17 x 17 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

Immediately prior to the discovery of gold in 1848, central California was home to Native communities; Mexican missions, ranchos, and pueblos; the small presidio—fortified military settlement—of San Francisco; and a few white American residents. Published two years later, this map testifies to the frantic pace of settlement during the California Gold Rush. By 1855, over 300,000 immigrants from the eastern United States, Europe, Latin America, Australia, and China established mining camps, towns, and roads. San Francisco grew rapidly. By the 1870s, California’s Native population plummeted from an estimated 150,000 to 30,000. Thousands were forcibly removed from their homelands, enslaved, or killed. Early legislation in California made it lucrative to enslave Native peoples, or to be paid for exterminating them.

U.S. General Land Office
“Map of the Public Land States and Territories …”
Washington, DC, 1864. Printed map, 30 x 44 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

This map, one of the first thematic maps of the United States published by the General Land Office, provided an inventory of the nation’s land and mineral resources. Besides showing the extent of township surveys, it locates local land offices and completed, uncompleted, and projected railroads. In addition, it uses color coding to identify the locations of six mineral resources – gold (yellow), silver (red), copper (green), quicksilver (blue), tin (purple) and coal (gray) – primarily covering extensive areas of the western states and territories. Ignoring the presence of Native peoples in this region, the map suggests that the minerals are readily available for exploitation.

E.A. Farrar (fl. 1834)
“View of Lowell, Mass. …”
Boston, 1834. Printed view, 14.25 x 24 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

Lowell, Massachusetts, the first planned company mill town, is recognized as the cradle of America’s Industrial Revolution. In the 1820s, Boston financiers founded the town when they constructed a textile factory on a canal bypassing the Merrimack River’s Pawtucket Falls. By mid-century, Lowell was the largest industrial complex in the United States. The textile economy relied on cotton grown by enslaved people in the South. The jobs attracted young women from rural New England, and immigrants from French Canada, Germany, and Ireland. The accompanying view, published in 1834, illustrates how the mills dominated the city’s landscape when viewed from the north side of the Merrimack River.

Ithamar A. Beard and J. Hoar
“Map of the City of Lowell Surveyed in 1841 …”
Boston, 1842. Printed map, 30.5 x 34 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell.

By the early 1840s, when this map was prepared, Lowell had grown to a population of more than 20,000, making it the state’s second largest city. The map details the footprint and function of individual buildings and demonstrates how dominant the textile industry was in the community. The map notes ten named textile mills as well as an additional 19 mills and factories. Mills were located near the river and canals, which provided waterpower for the factories. The directory lists company boarding houses, agents and superintendent houses, as well as numerous churches, schools, and other public buildings.

Winslow Homer (1836–1910)
“The Bobbin Girl,” from William Cullen Bryant, “Song of the Sower”
New York, 1871. Print. Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society. Reproduction, 2019.

The role of women in the textile industry is reflected in this illustration by Winslow Homer. The same year that the accompanying view was published, the textile workers formed the nation’s first union of working women, “turning out” (striking) in response to proposed wage cuts and blazing a trail for union workers.

John Bethune (1770–1861)
“A Map of That Part of Georgia Occupied by the Cherokee Indians … “
Milledgeville, GA, 1831. Printed map, 20.5 x 26.5 inches. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division. Reproduction, 2019.

The cultural and economic landscape of northwestern Georgia underwent dramatic changes before the American Civil War. This region formed part of the Tsalagi (Cherokee) homelands until the U.S. government forced the tribe’s removal to the Great Plains from 1836 to 1839. Gold was discovered in 1828, initiating one of the nation's first gold rushes and hastening their expulsion. This map, prepared in 1831 by the Georgia Surveyor General, promoted the richness of the area, especially the gold mines and fertile soil coveted by settlers. Besides locating a number of gold mines, the map also displayed Tsalagi communities and roads.

Eugene LeHardy (fl. 1856)
“A Topographic Map of the Etowah Property, Cass County, Georgia”
Etowah, GA, 1856. Film of printed map, 5.5 x 8 inches. Courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration. Reproduction, 2019.

Georgia’s gold rush ended by the early 1840s, but the discovery of other mineral resources, including iron, furthered the extensive exploitation of the landscape. During the first half of the 19th century, iron furnaces, which relied on charcoal, tended to be small rural operations located near iron deposits. One example is the Etowah Manufacturing and Mining Company located in northwestern Georgia. The accompanying topographic map shows that the small village encompassed the furnace, rolling mill, and workers’ housing and stores, while the company owned at least 10,000 acres of surrounding forest. This landscape was altered by cutting down massive amounts of timber to produce charcoal.

3. TRANSPORTATION: Making Connections by Road, Water, and Rail

At the beginning of the 1800s, the West was not an impenetrable, uncharted wilderness. Tribal nations had developed extensive trading networks via a web of navigable streams, rivers, lakes and overland trails. Many of the routes followed by early explorers and fur traders traced well-established trails forged by Native people. As the U.S. government planned for expansion, locations for roads, canals and railroads were pursued based on potential profits for investors.

Because of poor road conditions, traveling by water was initially the most efficient option. Travel became faster and less costly over the course of the century. Landmarks in transportation technology started with the introduction of the steamboat, which made travel up the Mississippi and other rivers possible. The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, and the first railroad made its inaugural trip in 1830.

Congress later made large land grants to help finance the construction of transcontinental railroads. By the end of the century, a complex network of railroads crisscrossed the nation and made speedy and inexpensive land travel possible for moving people and manufactured goods.

David Burr (1803–1875)
“The World on Mercator’s Projection, Showing the Different Routes to California … “
Boston, 1850. Printed map, 18.5 x 22.5 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

During the first half of the 19th century, it was not easy to travel from the East to the West Coast. This map, published after the discovery of gold in California, displays several possibilities. One route was the lengthy ocean voyage from the East Coast, around the southern tip of South America, to San Francisco. Quicker alternatives, lasting one to three months, combined ocean travel with a short land passage across Central America. Travelers could also cross North America via the Oregon Trail, which took four to six months. While this map appears to emphasize ocean navigation, it also promoted a proposed railroad route from Saint Louis to San Francisco.

“Calypso,” “Ne Plus Ultra,” “Golden Eagle,” and “Comet”
Printed cards, each 7 x 4 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell.

In the 1840s and 1850s, the use of speedy clipper ships for ocean navigation boomed. These ships proved vital for the China trade and travel to California during the Gold Rush. American clipper ships, characterized by three tall masts and square rigging, were first built in Baltimore, but some of the fastest were constructed in East Boston and Medford, Massachusetts. These promotional cards provide evidence of the role clipper ships played in mid-19th century transportation. Such cards, which date from the 1850s and 1860s, advertised the departure of individual ships, primarily from New York and Boston to San Francisco.

Albert Gallatin (1761–1849)
“Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, on the Subject of Public Roads and Canals”
Washington, DC, 1808. Printed title page, 9 x 6 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell.

While serving as Thomas Jefferson’s Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gallatin developed a comprehensive plan for the construction of a national system of roads and canals to be financed by the federal government. His report called for canals and a national turnpike along the Atlantic seaboard, as well as canals connecting the Atlantic rivers with the western rivers, St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes. Although Congress rejected the plan, it was visionary. Several proposals, such as the National Road and the Erie Canal, were eventually completed using a combination of federal, state, local or private funds.

Andrew Ellicott (1754–1820)
“Map of Lower Mississippi River” from “The Journal of Andrew Ellicott …”
Philadelphia, 1803. Printed map, 14 x 28 inches. Courtesy Lawrence Caldwell.

This map showing the meandering course of the Lower Mississippi River and seven other maps of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers prepared by Andrew Ellicott highlight the significance of the two rivers for travel in the interior part of the United States. Ellicott, best known for surveying the boundaries of the District of Columbia and completing the plan for the new capital city in 1791–1792, was commissioned by President George Washington to survey the nation’s southwestern boundary with Spanish West Florida. Ellicott’s observations from 1796–1800 were published in 1803, when interest in the geography of the newly acquired Louisiana Territory gained national attention.

Samuel B. Munson (1806–1880)
“A New Map of the Western Rivers, or, Travellers Guide …”
Cincinnati, 1851. Printed map, 22 x 11 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

This map, designed for travelers, compressed the Mississippi River and its major tributaries—the Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri—onto one compact sheet, providing a succinct guide to towns and distances along the navigable portions of the rivers. The Mississippi River and its tributaries provided transportation arteries for exploration, commerce, and travel. Starting in the early 19th century, steamboats dominated transportation on these navigable rivers. Canals, also introduced in the early 19th century, improved transportation, but they required significant investments into infrastructure. Steamboats, on the other hand, could travel on existing waterways and, unlike boats that relied on sails, against the current.

New York Canal Commissioners
“A New Map and Profile of the Proposed Canal from Lake Erie to Hudson River …”
New York, 1821. Printed map, 16 x 68 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell. Reproduction, 2019.

The Appalachian Mountains presented an obstacle for traffic flow from the Atlantic seaboard to the Midwest. After considering various projects to cross this barrier, the New York state government built the Erie Canal. Constructed from 1817 to 1825, the canal extended 363 miles connecting Albany (on the Hudson River) with Buffalo (on Lake Erie). Taking advantage of a natural break in the mountain chain, the route climbed an elevation of 568 feet, using 83 locks and 18 aqueducts, as depicted on this 1821 plan. Its successful completion and profitable operation ushered in an era of canal building in the United States.

Archibald Robertson (1765–1835)
“Grand Canal Celebration . . .” from “Memoir Prepared at . . . the Celebration of the Completion of the New York Canals”
New York, 1825. Printed view, 10 x 47 inches. Courtesy of New York Public Library. Reproduction, 2019.

This engraving, originally published in 1825, documents the jubilant celebration of the Erie Canal’s completion held in New York City’s Harbor. A fleet of boats assembled for the occasion. Their tall masts display their colors as well as the American flag. New York City, already the nation’s largest city, benefited the most from the canal’s success. Between the canal’s completion in 1825 and 1850, the city’s population grew from 180,000 to 700,000. This rapid growth resulted from increased commerce, via the Hudson River and Erie Canal, with a hinterland that encompassed the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Valley.

“Cargo Tickets Used on Erie Canal”
1831. Annotated form, 6 x 7.5 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell.

For New Yorkers along the route, the Erie Canal made travel much faster and cheaper than travel by wagon on bumpy roads. Merchants took advantage of this new form of transportation, and the price of shipping goods dropped 90 percent. Examples of three cargo tickets dated 1831 certify that a trader paid the tolls to ship cargo via the canal. These receipts, which list the cargo, its origin, and its destination, reveal various types of freight—wheat, flour, whiskey, and furniture. Despite the canal’s success, within decades steamships and railroads became more popular for fast and efficient travel.

W.C. Moore (fl. 1848)
“Map of the Hudson River Rail Road from New York to Albany”
New York, 1848. Printed map, 17 x 151 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell. Reproduction, 2019.

For 18th-century French, British, and American colonists, the Hudson River was strategically important as part of the corridor linking New York City and Montreal. With the completion of the Erie Canal, it became part of the route connecting the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. This topographic strip map, published in 1848, emphasizes the navigable portion of the river and marks the route of the new Hudson River Railroad, chartered in 1846. The map identified major towns and villages, some of which were becoming industrial centers that manufactured goods for markets in New York City or for export.

“Stock Certificate for Lancaster Turnpike”
1795, Printed certificate, 8 x 10 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell.

In 1795, Americans constructed a turnpike between Philadelphia and Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Instead of the state funding the road, individuals purchased stock to finance the project. The turnpike was the nation’s first long-distance road. It had a stone surface that made travel by wagons and horses easier during rainy weather. The engraving at the top of this certificate depicts a Conestoga wagon approaching an opened gate that signified the beginning of the toll road.

Christopher Colles (1738–1816)
“From Philadelphia … to Annapolis, Maryland,” from “A Survey of the Roads of the United States of America”
New York, 1789. Printed map, 8.5 x 5.5 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell.

Small, pocket-size guide books provided maps and directions for late 18th-century travelers attempting to negotiate the various unmarked routes connecting cities and towns along the eastern seaboard. This example, published in 1789, was the first to include maps. It depicted routes from New York City north to Albany, and south through Philadelphia to Williamsburg, Virginia. Displayed here are the title page and two pages showing about 24 miles of the road south of Philadelphia toward Annapolis, Maryland. These strip maps identified the primary route and intersections, bridges, churches, taverns, mills, and blacksmith shops along the route, much like today's GPS systems.

Abraham Bradley (1767–1838)
“Map of the United States Exhibiting the Post-Roads, the Situations, Connections & Distances of the Post-Offices . . .”
Philadelphia, 1796. Printed map 35 x 38 inches. Courtesy of Barry MacLean Collection.

In the 1790s, transportation within the new nation was slow and cumbersome. This early postal route map depicts navigable rivers and existing roads. National postal service had existed since the Revolutionary War, but Congress did not institute a formal Post Office Department to designate post offices and postal roads until 1792. Abraham Bradley, an assistant postmaster general for 30 years, prepared the first post route map in 1796. He revised it numerous times, though the earliest versions included an innovative schedule chart that listed the estimated time for postal delivery from Maine to Georgia. At that time, it took 46 days to travel the entire route.

Edward Weber (d. 1848)
“Ellicott’s Mills”
Baltimore, 1836. Print, 26 x 30 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell.

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the nation’s first steam-operated railway. Baltimore merchants conceived this project as a means of competing with New York’s successful Erie Canal. They wanted to profit from the lucrative trade west of the Appalachians. Construction began in 1828, and the first section of the railroad opened in 1830. The train ran 13 miles from Baltimore to Ellicott’s Mills (present-day Ellicott City), Maryland. This print depicts a short train traveling the tracks on the far side of the river. Steam puffs out of the engine into the sky, as two travelers on horses watch the train pass.

“B & O Stock Certificate”
1836. Printed certificate, 6 x 10 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell.

Though we know the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad became successful, Americans at that time did not. Investors who financially backed the railroad’s construction received stock certificates like this one purchased by Richard Emory. The certificate features three illustrations at the top. Two female allegorical figures flank a central image of the new track, suggesting its potential for carrying supplies and people. The success of this endeavor proved that the new mode of transportation could be constructed elsewhere.

W.T. Steiger (fl. 1854)
“Diagram of the United States of America … Showing Proposed Routes of the Pacific Rail Road ...” Washington, DC, 1854. Printed map, 29 x 37 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

By mid-19th century, with increased oceanic traffic between the East and West Coasts based on the China trade and discovery of gold in California, many Americans wanted to extend the nation’s rail network west of the Mississippi River by constructing a transcontinental route. In 1853, Congress authorized the War Department to conduct reconnaissance surveys in order to determine the best route for a transcontinental railroad. Because of growing sectional rivalries between the North and South in extending chattel slavery into the western territories, there were four east-west Pacific Railroad Surveys, as indicated on this schematic map.

John Mix Stanley (1814–1872)
“Distribution of Goods to the Assiniboines,” and “Milk River, near Junction of Missouri,” from “Report of Explorations and Surveys to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad …”
Washington, DC, 1855-1860, vol. 12, part 1. Lithograph prints, 8.5 x 11.5 inches. Courtesy of Ronald Grim.

The results of the Pacific Railroad Surveys were documented in numerous topographic maps and 12 volumes of reports describing the geography, flora and fauna, and Native peoples. These volumes included numerous illustrations depicting Native people and natural landscapes, such as these two views prepared by John Mix Stanley while serving with the Northern Pacific Railroad Survey party. One records a meeting on the northern Great Plains with the Assiniboine, whose chief expressed grave concerns that the coming railroad would greatly affect their way of life, and the other depicts Montana’s Milk River Valley with a pair of antelope in the foreground.

Charles Magnus (1826–1900)
“Complete Map of the Rail Roads and Water Courses in the United States & Canada”
New York, [1859]. Printed map, 14.25 x 18.5 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center. Reproduction, 2019.

This map displays the nation's growing transportation and communication network on the eve of the Civil War. The legend identifies rail lines that were in operation, in progress, and proposed, along with telegraph and coastal steamship lines. Railroads were densest in the North, extending from New England through the Mid-Atlantic and Midwestern states. In the South, the network was less dense, with shorter lines running from interior locations to coastal ports. This map was overprinted around 1861 to show the first southern states to secede from the Union with an early version of the Confederate flag flying over Montgomery, Alabama, the first capital of the Confederacy.

4. POPULATION: Growth, Urbanization, and Diversity

As the United States transformed, so did its citizenry. Maps and data document the rapid growth of cities, the forced removals of Native people from their land, and the locations and number of enslaved people in the United States. Population grew from 4 million in 1790 to 30 million on the eve of the Civil War. Non-Native population densities increased, exhibiting a range of settlement concentrations from family farms and villages to cities, such as Chicago.

The nation’s ethnic and cultural composition changed radically. As U.S. population and power spread across the continent, indigenous peoples suffered genocide, while the remaining tribal nations were forced to move from their homelands onto much smaller reservations. African-Americans had been brought to North America since the beginning of the 17th century, but most remained enslaved until the Civil War. Adding to the nation’s cultural diversity, Western European immigrants, largely from Germany and Ireland, came during the first half of the century. By the end of the century, immigrants came from a greater variety of places, including China and southern and eastern Europe.

Henry Gannett (1846–1914)
“Population of the United States (Excluding Indians Not Taxed): 1790-1820,” and “… 1830-1860,” from “Statistical Atlas of the United States …”
Washington, DC, 1898. Printed maps, 21 x 16 inches.
Courtesy of the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division. Reproduction, 2019.
Using data from the 1890 census, the Census Office prepared a landmark atlas featuring an array of thematic maps and statistical graphics. Besides mapping the 1890 distribution of population across the continent, it also included a series of maps that plotted population distribution and density for each decennial census. For example, the 1790 map shows the densest population extending along the Atlantic coast from southern Maine to northeastern Georgia, with scattered clusters extending beyond the Appalachian Mountains. By 1860, the densest populations extended across the eastern half of the country to the Great Plains.

Henry Gannett (1846–1914)
“Rank of the Most Populous Cities at Each Census: 1790-1890,” from “Statistical Atlas of the United States …”
Washington, DC, 1898. Printed map, 21 x 32 inches.
Courtesy of the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division. Reproduction, 2019.

In addition to maps, the 1890 “Statistical Atlas” included a variety of innovative graphics. This chart lists major cities from the highest to lowest populations, from New York City to Trenton, New Jersey. Each column to the right features data from an earlier census. A line traces the rise and fall of the city’s population over time. For example, note that New York City has had the highest population since the nation’s first census in 1790. Chicago, in contrast, was not even considered a major city until 1850. The Midwestern hub grew rapidly to become the second largest city by 1890.

J.S. Wright (fl. 1834)
New York, 1834. Printed map, 26 x 21 inches. Courtesy of Lawrence Caldwell.

The founding of Chicago as a transportation, commercial, and industrial hub started in the 1830s, although the area was home to earlier Native, French and U.S. Army activities. The town was surveyed in 1830 and incorporated in 1833, with a population of 350. This 1834 map depicts the original configuration of the streets and blocks, which covered approximately 2.5 square miles. The site consisted of two entire sections and two partial sections in Township 39 North, Range 14 East, of the Third Principal Meridian. The map is color-coded to indicate the dates that various portions of the town were surveyed.

W.L. Flower and James Van Vechten (fl. 1860–1882)
“Chicago: Drawn from Davie's Atlas with the Latest Recorded Subdivisions”
Chicago, 1863. Printed map, 75 x 44.5 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

Situated on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan, Chicago commanded a short land portage between the Great Lakes and Illinois River, giving it access to the Mississippi River Valley. By 1860, Chicago’s population grew to 110,000, making it the nation’s ninth largest city. This rapid growth is demonstrated with an 1863 map highlighting the real estate subdivisions added to the city. Its geographical footprint had expanded dramatically from the original town plat of 2.5 square miles, extending 4-6 miles to the north, south, and west. Throughout this expansion, the street pattern continued to follow the grid pattern guided by General Land Office’s township surveys.

James Bowden (b. 1811)
“A Map of North America Denoting … the Locations of the Various Indian Tribes,” from “Some Account of the Conduct … towards the Indian Tribes . . .”
London, 1844. Printed map, 18 x 21 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

From the earliest European settlements in North America through the 19th century, Catholic and Protestant missionaries took part in evangelizing missionary expeditions to Native communities. One particularly active religious group was the Society of Friends, or Quakers. Besides detailing the missionary activities of the various regional Yearly Meetings, their 1844 annual report included this map which shows the extent of each Yearly Meeting as well as the lands in the Great Plains allotted to eastern tribes. It also depicts the distribution of Indigenous communities in the western half of the country.

Washington Hood (1808–1840)
“Map of the Western Territory &c.” from U.S. Committee on Indian Affairs, “Regulating the Indian Department”
Washington, DC, [1834]. Printed map, 17 x 18 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

The geography of tribal nations living east of the Mississippi River changed drastically by the 1830s, as depicted on this map accompanying a report concerning the establishment of a new Western Territory reserved for Native people. As American settlers moved into the Ohio River Valley, numerous tribes were forced to cede their lands and relocate west of the Mississippi River. In addition, the 1830 Indian Removal Act mandated the mass removal of the Tsalagi (Cherokee), Mvskoke (Creek), Chahta (Choctaw), Chickasha (Chickasaw), and Semvnole (Seminole) living in southeastern United States. Although this new territory was promised as theirs in perpetuity, it was eventually opened for settlement and statehood for Oklahoma.

Edwin Hergesheimer (fl. 1853–1885)
“Map Showing the Distribution of the Slave Population of the Southern States of the United States … “
Washington, DC, 1861. Printed map, 31 x 40 inches. Leventhal Map and Education Center.

Enslaved people were introduced into the economy of the 13 British North American colonies in the 17th century. By 1860, when this map was published, the enslaved population, primarily of African descent, numbered almost four million people, comprising about 12 percent of the nation's population. This early thematic map uses shades of gray and black to plot the percentage of enslaved people by county for the southern states at the beginning of the American Civil War. In many places enslaved African people greatly outnumbered Whites. Such places often used a variety of laws and practices intended to limit communication, enact terror, and discourage revolts. Rather than a uniform distribution throughout the entire region, chattel slavery was concentrated in several regions where commercial plantation agriculture was most profitable.



Books and Articles

Barr, Juliana and Edward Countryman, eds. Contested Spaces of Early America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.

Bernstein, David. How the West Was Drawn: Mapping, Indians, and the Construction of the Trans-Mississippi West. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2018.

Brückner, Martin. The Social Life of Maps in America, 1750-1860. Williamsburg, VA: Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture and Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2017.

Buisseret, David, ed. From Sea Charts to Satellite Images: Interpreting North American History through Maps. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Caldwell, Larry and Michael Buehler. “Picturing a Networked Nation: Abraham Bradley’s Landmark U.S Postal Maps,” The Portolan, no. 77 (Spring 2010), 7-24.

Calloway, Colin G. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.

Cohen, Paul E. Mapping the West: America’s Westward Movement, 1524-1890. New York: Rizzoli, 2002.

Cronon, William, George Miles, and Jay Gitlin, eds. Under an Open Sky: Rethinkng America’s Western Past. New York: W.W. Norton, 1992. See especially Cronon, et. al. “Becoming West: Toward a New Meaning of Western History,” pp. 3-27.

Cronon, William. Nature’s Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1992.

DeLay, Brian. War of a Thousand Deserts: Indian Raids and the U.S.-Mexican War. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Denson, Andrew. Demanding the Cherokee Nation: Indian Autonomy and American Culture, 1830-1900. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.

Ehrenberg, Ralph E. and Seymour I. Schwartz. The Mapping of America. New York: Henry Abrams, 1980.

Ehrenberg, Ralph E. Mapping the West with Lewis and Clark. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 2015.

Frymer, Paul. Building an American Empire: The Era of Territorial and Political Expansion. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017.

Grim, Ronald E. “Mapping Kansas and Nebraska: The Role of the General Land Office,” Great Plains Quarterly, 5, no. 3 (Summer 1985), 177-197.

Hamalainen, Pekka. The Comanche Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Hine, Robert V., John Mack Faragher, and Jon T. Coleman. The American West: A New Interpretive History, Second Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017.

Hoxie, Frederick E., ed. The Oxford Handbook of American Indian History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Hyde, Anne F. Empires, Nations, and Families: A New History of the North American West, 1800-1860. New York: Ecco, 2012.

Keene, Jennifer D., Saul Cornell, and Edward T. O’Donnell. Visions of America: A History of the United States. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2010.

Knowles, Anne K. and Chester Harvey. Mastering Iron: The Struggle to Modernize an American Industry, 1800–1868. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Lane, Christopher W. “The Changing American West: Mapping Nineteenth-Century Political Transformation in the Trans-Mississippi West,” IMCoS Journal, no. 150 (Autumn 2017), 35-43.

Lewis, G. Malcolm, ed. Cartographic Encounters: Perspectives on Native American Mapmaking and Map Use. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Luebke, Frederick C., Frances W. Kaye, and Gary E. Moulton, eds. Mapping the North American Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.

McDermott, Paul D., Ronald E. Grim, and Philip Mobley. Eye of the Explorer: Views of the Northern Pacific Railroad Surveys, 1853-54. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press, 2010.

McIlwraith, Thomas F. and Edward K. Muller, eds. North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2001.

Meinig, Donald W. The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 2: Continental America, 1800–1867, and Volume 3: Transcontinental America, 1850–1915. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993 -1998.

Milner, Clyde A., Carol A. O’Connor, and Martha A. Sandweiss, eds. The Oxford History of the American West. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Peterson, Jon A. The Birth of City Planning in the United States, 1840-1917. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Reps, John W. The Making of Urban America: A History of City Planning in the United States. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1965.

Reps, John W. Town Planning in Frontier America. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1971.

Richardson, Heather Cox. Wounded Knee: Party Politics and the Road to an American Massacre. New York: Basic Books, 2011.

Ristow, Walter W. American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the Nineteenth Century. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1985.

Sandweiss, Martha A. Print the Legend: Photography and the American West. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Smithers, Gregory D. The Cherokee Diaspora: An Indigenous History of Migration, Resettlement, and Identity. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015.

Stremlau, Rose. Sustaining the Cherokee Family: Kinship and the Allotment of an Indigenous Nation. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Taft, Robert. Artists and Illustrators of the Old West, 1850-1900. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1953.

Trachtenberg, Alan. Reading American Photographs: Images as History, Mathew Brady to Walker Evans. New York: Hill and Wang, 1990.

Vance, James E. The North American Railroad: Its Origin, Evolution, and Geography. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Virga, Vincent, Curators of the Library of Congress, and Alan Brinkley. Eyes of the Nation: A Visual History of the United States. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997.

Warhus, Mark. Another America: Native American Maps and the History of Our Land. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1997.

Wheat, Carl I. Mapping the Trans-Mississippi West, 1540-1861. 5 vols. San Francisco: Institute of Historical Cartography, 1957-63.

Exhibition Catalogs and Online Presentations

Conzen, Michael P. and Diane Dillon. Mapping Manifest Destiny: Chicago and the American West. Chicago: The Newberry Library, 2007.

Ehrenberg, Ralph E. “Mapping the North American Plains: A Catalog of the Exhibition,” pp. 173-230, in Frederick C. Luebke, Frances W. Kaye, and Gary E. Moulton, eds. Mapping the North American Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.

Ehrenberg, Ralph E. “Taking the Measure of the Land,” Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives 9, no. 3 (Fall 1977), 128-150.

Friis, Herman R. Federal Exploration of the American West before 1880. Washington, DC: National Archives, 1963.

Grim, Ronald E. “Mapping Migration and Settlement,” in James R. Akerman and Peter Nekola, eds. Mapping Movement in American History and Culture. Chicago: Hermon Dunlap Smith Center for the History of Cartography at the Newberry Library, 2016. Online essay and gallery at

Huseman, Ben W. Revisualizing Westward Expansion: A Century of Conflict in Maps, 1800–1900. Arlington, Texas: Special Collections University of Texas at Arlington Library, 2008.

Huseman, Ben W. The Price of Manifest Destiny: Maps Relating to Wars in the Southwest Borderlands, 1800–1866. Arlington, Texas: Special Collections University of Texas at Arlington Library, 2014.

Library of Congress. Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis and Clark and the Revealing of America. Washington: Library of Congress, 2003. Virtual tour online at:

McElveen, J. C. “Westward the Course of Empire,” Exploring and Settling the American West, 1803-1869: Books and Maps from the Collection of J.C. McElveen, Jr. New York: The Grolier Club, 2018.

Osher Map Library. Maps of Westward Expansion in the United States. Portland, Maine: Osher Map Library Smith Center for Cartographic Education. Virtual tour online at:

Ristow, Walter W. Maps for an Emerging Nation: Commercial Cartography in Nineteenth-century America. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1977.

Thrower, Norman J. W. How the West Was Mapped: The Cartography of the North American Southwest from Waldseemüller to Whitney. Milwaukee: American Geographical Society Collection of the Golda Meir Library, 2001.


Ronald E. Grim, Ph.D


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Object Citations

Wright, John S. (John Stephen).  "Chicago."  Map.  1834.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Stanley, John Mix,  and Sarony, Major & Knapp Lith..  "Distribution of goods to the Assiniboines."  Print.  1860.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Weber, Edward.  "Ellicott's Mills."  Print.  1836.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Beard, Ithamar A.,  Hoar, J.,  and Boynton, George W., -1884.  "Map of the city of Lowell."  Map.  1842.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Ellicott, Andrew,  Lawson, Alexander,  and Fry, William.  "Map of the Lower Mississippi River."  Map.  1814.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Woodruff, William, active 1817-1833,  and N. & G. Guilford (Firm).  "A map of the state of Ohio."  Map.  1831.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Morgan, T. J. (Thomas Jefferson),  and Norris Peters Co..  "Map showing Indian reservations within the limits of the United States."  Map.  1892.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Stanley, John Mix,  and Sarony, Major & Knapp Lith..  "Milk River, near junction of Missouri."  Print.  1860.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

New York (State). Canal Commissioners.  "A new map and profile of the proposed canal from Lake Erie to Hudson River in the state of New York."  Map.  1821.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Rector, William, active 1809-1820,  and Rector, Elias, -1822.  "Plat of the common field and town tract of Kaskaskia."  Map.  1807.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

LeHardy, Eugene, -1874.  "A topographical map of the Etowah property, Cass County, Georgia."  Map.  1856.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Van Vechten, J.,  Flower, W. L., (Surveyor),  and Charles Shober & Co.  "Chicago."  Map.  1863.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Charles Magnus & Co.  "Complete map of the rail roads and water courses in the United States & Canada."  Map.  1859.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Doepler, Carl Emil,  Wise, C.,  and Johnson, A. J. (Alvin Jewett).  "Johnson's new illustrated family atlas of the world, with physical geography, and with descriptions geographical, statistical, and historical, including the latest federal census, and the existing religious denominations in the world [frontispiece]."  Print.  1866.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Diamond Litho-Pub'g Co..  "Land measures illustrated ; percentage illustrated ; phonic analysis."  Print.  1901.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Bowden, James.  "A map of North America, denoting the boundaries of the yearly meetings of Friends and the locations of the various Indian tribes."  Map.  1844.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Lewis, Meriwether,  Clark, William,  King, N. (Nicholas),  and United States. War Department.  "Map of part of the continent of North America."  Map.  1807.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Scott, Walter, surveyor,  Cox, W. J., surveyor,  Scott, James D.,  and S. Lewis & J.S. Hawley Civil Engineers.  "Map of Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania."  Map.  1864.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

McLellan, David, b. ca. 1825,  Olmsted, Frederick Law,  and Mason Brothers.  "A map of the cotton kingdom and its dependencies in America."  Map.  1861.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Moore, W. C.,  Haering, Robert,  and Snyder, George, approximately 1820-.  "Map of the Hudson River Rail Road from New York to Albany."  Map.  1848.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Jackson, Wm. A. (William A.),  Mudge, Theodore A.,  and Lambert & Lane.  "Map of the mining district of California."  Map.  1850.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Fletcher, Robert H.,  Howard, O. O.,  United States. Army. Dept. of the Columbia,  and United States. War Dept.  "Map of the Nez Perce Indian campaign Brig. Gen. O. O. Howard commanding."  Map.  1877.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Roeser, C. (Charles),  and United States. General Land Office. .  "Map of the United States and territories, showing the extent of public surveys and other details constructed from the plats and official sources of the General Land Office."  Map.  1871.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Hood, Washington..  "Map of the Western Territory &c."  Map.  1834.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Dall, W..  "[Map of W. Dall's lots in Athens County, Washington County, and Gallia County, Ohio]."  Map.  1800.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Hergesheimer, E. (Edwin),  Leonhardt, Theo. (Theodore),  Graham, H. S. (Henry S.),  United States Coast Survey,  and United States. Bureau of the Census. .  "Map showing the distribution of the slave population of the southern states of the United States."  Map.  1861.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Disturnell, John.  "Mapa de los Estados Unidos de Méjico."  Map.  1846.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Munson, Samuel B.,  H.S. & J. Applegate (Firm),  and Doolittle & Munson.  "A new map of the western rivers, or, Travellers guide."  Map.  1851.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

National Publishing Company (Boston, Mass.),  and Scarborough Company.  "The United States of America."  Map.  1902.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Berthrong, I. P.,  Bond, Frank,  and United States. General Land Office. .  "United States showing routes of principal explorers and early roads and highways."  Map.  1908.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Farrar, E. A.,  and Pendleton's Lithography.  "View of Lowell, Mass."  Map.  1834.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Burr, David H.,  and Haven, John.  "The world, on Mercator's projection."  Map.  1850.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Colton, J. H. (Joseph Hutchins).  "Colton's map of the United States of America, the British provinces, Mexico and the West Indies."  Map.  1854.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Steiger, W. T.,  United States. General Land Office. ,  and A. Hoen & Co.  "Diagram of the United States of America, Mexico, the West India Islands and Isthmus of Darien."  Map.  1854.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Frémont, John Charles,  Abert, John James,  Edward Weber & Co,  United States. Congress. . Senate. ,  and United States. Bureau of Topographical Engineers. .  "Map of an exploring expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the year 1842 and to Oregon & north California in the years 1843-44."  Map.  1845.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Melish, John,  and Bradley, Burr.  "Map of Indiana."  Map.  1817.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Smith, Robert Pearsall,  and Kellogg & Randall.  "Map of Pickaway County, Ohio."  Map.  1858.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Hawes, J. H.,  Franks, Theodore.,  McClelland, D.,  and United States. General Land Office. .  "Map of the public land states and territories."  Map.  1864.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Young, J. H. (James Hamilton),  Mitchell, S. Augustus (Samuel Augustus),  Haines, D.,  and Dankworth, E..  "Map of the United States."  Map.  1831.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Bloss, William C.,  Frauenberger, George F.,  and A. Strong & Co..  "Map of the United States and territories, showing the possessions and aggressions of the slave power."  Map.  1856.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Arrowsmith, Aaron.  "A map of the United States of North America."  Map.  1802.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).

Faden, William.  "Map of North America from 20 to 80 degrees north latitude."  Map.  1820.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center, (accessed May 23, 2019).